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10-15 minutes


Junior / Intermediate


Journal/other formats (mind maps, blogs, wikis, lists, emojis etc.)


To help students become better problem solvers and become better judges of what and how they learn

Help students monitor their own thinking with personal learning journals, where students reflect on HOW, rather than WHAT they learned.  Reflection questions might include:

  • What was easiest for me to learn this week? Why?
  • What was most challenging for me to learn? Why?
  • What study strategies worked well as I prepared for my exam?
  • What strategies for exam preparation didn’t work well? What will I do differently next time?
  • What study habits worked best for me? How?
  • What study habit will I try or improve upon next week?
  • Adapted from Constructing Meaning by Nancy N Boyles

Metacognition (thinking about/reflecting on one’s thinking) is an essential skill in the development of a student’s learning and key in facilitating such processes as problem solving, using learning strategies, and the movement to taking responsibility for learning (Garcia, Rodriguez, Gonzalez-Castro, Alvarez-Garcia & GonzalezPienda, 2016). When considering skills such as studying, which are key to the culmination of learning, those students with strong metacognition are able to identify their need for studying, to make a study plan and to evaluate their study strategies. They will be able to adjust their studying based on the demands and make wise decisions about study time (Gettinger & Seibert, 2002).

Boyles, N. N. (2004). Constructing meaning through kid-friendly comprehension strategy instruction. Maupin House Pub.

Gettinger, Maribeth, & Seibert, Jill K. (2002). Contributions of Study Skills to Academic Competence. School Psychology Review, 31(3), 350-65.

Trinidad García, Celestino Rodríguez, Paloma González-Castro, David Álvarez-García, & Julio-Antonio González-Pienda. (2016). Metacognition and executive functioning in Elementary School. Anales De Psicología, 32(2), 474-483.